A.T.Fomenko
Empirico-Statistical Analysis of Narrative Material and its Applications to Historical Dating

Volume II
The Analysis of Ancient and Medieval Records

Empirico-Statistical Analysis of Narrative Material and its Applications to Historical  Dating Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994
ISBN 0-7923-2605-9
ISBN 0-7923-2606-7 (Set oftwo volumes)
Translated by O.Efimov


Volume 1: The Development of the Statistical Tools

CONTENTS

Introduction

Chapter 1. Methods for the Statistical Analysis of Narrative Texts

1. The Maximum Correlation Principle for Historical Chronicles and Its Verification by Distribution Functions. Analysis of Russian Chronicles
Page 1
Page 2

2. The Maximum Correlation Principle and Its Verification by Frequency Histograms. Method for the Discovery of Dependent Historical Texts. The Period of "Confusion" in the History of Russia (1584-1600 A. D.)
Page 3
Page 4
Page 5
Page 6
Page 7
Page 8

3. A Method for Dating Historical Events Described in Chronographic Texts, and Its Verification Against Reliable Historical Data
Page 9

Page 10

4. Methods for Ordering and Dating Old Geographic Maps and Descriptions

4.1. The map-code and the map-improvement principle
Page 11

Page 12
Page 13
Page 14

4.2. Confirmation of the map-improvement principle
Page 15

4.3. Herodotus' map
Page 16

4.4. Medieval geography
Page 17

Page 18

5. Frequency Distributions in Rulers' Numerical Dynasties

5 .1. Parallel rulers' dynasties
Page 19

Page 20
Page 21
Page 22

5.2. Statistical parallel between the Carolingians and the Third Roman Empire

5.3. Statistical parallel between the Holy Roman Empire and the Third Roman Empire
Page 23

Page 24
Page 25

5.4. Statistical parallel between the Holy Roman Empire and the Empire of the House of Hapsburg
Page 26

Page 27
Page 28

5.5. Statistical parallel between the Holy Roman Empire and the Second Roman Empire
Page 29

Page 30
Page 31

5.6. Statistical parallel between the Holy Roman Empire and the kingdom of Judah
Page 32

Page 33

5.7. Statistical parallel between Roman coronations of the Holy Roman emperors and the kingdom of Israel
Page 34

Page 35
Page 36
Page 37
Page 38

5.8. Statistical parallel between the First Roman pontificate and the Second Roman pontificate
Page 39

Page 40

5.9. Statistical parallel between the First Roman Empire (regal Rome) and the Third Roman Empire
Page 41

Page 42
Page 43
Page 44
Page 45
Page 46

5.10. Statistical parallel between the Second Roman Empire and the Third Roman Empire
Page 47

5.11. Statistical parallel between the kingdom of Judah and the Eastern Roman Empire
Page 48

5.12. Statistical parallel between the kingdom of Israel and the Third Roman Empire
Page 49

Page 50
Page 51

5.13. Statistical parallel between the First Byzantine Empire and the Second Byzantine Empire
Page 52

5.14. Statistical parallel between the Second Byzantine Empire and the Third Byzantine Empire
Page 53

5.15. Statistical parallel between medieval Greece and ancient Greece
Page 54

Page 55
Page 56

5.16. Statistical duplicates of the Trojan war
Page 57

5.17. "Modern textbook of European history" and its decomposition into the sum of four short isomorphic chronicles
Page 58

Page 59
Page 60
Page 61
Page 62
Page 63
Page 64
Page 65
Page 66
Page 67
Page 68
Page 69
Page 70

5.18. Possible explanation of the three chronological shifts discovered in the Global Chronological Diagram

1. The general idea and the 1,000-year shift
Page 71

Page 72

2. The 333-year shift
Page 73


Comment of 2013 year. The following fragment is taken from the book Anatoly T.Fomenko "History: Fiction or Science", vol.2. Delamere Publishing,2005.

3. The 1 ,800-year shift
Page 74

Page 75
Page 76

5.19. Dionysius the Little
Page 77

6. Some Other Independent Proofs of the Existence of Three Basic GCD Chronological Shifts 78

6.1. The list of Roman popes as the spinal column of medieval Roman history
Page 78

Page 79
Page 80
Page 81

6.2. The mean age of all old historical names and the frequency-damping principle for the matrix columns
Page 82
Page 83
Page 84

6.3. Square matrix of biblical names and statistical duplicates in the Old and New Testament
Page 85
Page 86

6.4. Matrix of parallel passages in the Old and New Testament
Page 87
Page 88
Page 89

6.5. Scatterings of related names in chronological lists. The relation matrix
Page 90

1. Introduction 90

2. Name list of secular or church rulers
Page 91

3. Correct and incorrect chronology in the name list. Frequency histograms
Page 92

4. Computation of histograms for real historical texts
Page 93

5. Histograms related to the name and nationality lists of Roman popes
Page 94

6. Damping succession in a historical chronicle
Page 95
Page 96

7. Results related to the lists of biblical names and parallel passages
Page 97

8. Chronological shifts between the duplicates in chronologically incorrect chronicles
Page 98
Page 99

9. The card-deck problem and chronology
Page 100

10. Relation matrix: preliminaries

11. Principal definitions. Assumptions about the structure of a correct chronological text
Page 101
Page 102

12. Relation measure. The problem of separation of strong and weak relations in a chronicle
Page 103
Page 104

13. Frequency histograms for the appearance of relations. The choice of thresholds
Page 105

14. Results related to the name list of Roman popes. Chronological shifts
Page 106
Page 107
Page 108
Page 109

15. The list of names of Roman emperors and the related chronological shifts
Page 110

16. The comparison of the results obtained with the decomposition in the Global Chronological Diagram
Page 111

Chapter 2. Enquete-Codes of Chronological Duplicates and Biographical Parallels. Three Chronological Shifts: The Byzantine-Roman 333-year shift, the Roman 1,053-year shift and the Greco-biblical1,800-year shift

1. Frequency Characteristics and Enquete-Codes of the Historical Periods from 82 B.C. to 217 A.D. (Second Roman Empire) and from 300 to 550 A.D. (Third Roman Empire). The 330-year First Basic Rigid Shift in Roman History

1.1. Ancient sources and their origin. Tacitus and Bracciolini
Page 112
Page 113
Page 114
Page 115
Page 116
Page 117

1.2. The complete list of Roman emperors of the Second and Third Roman Empires
Page 118
Page 119
Page 120
Page 121
Page 122
Page 123

1.3. The 330-year rigid shift in Roman history. The parallel between the Second and the Third Roman Empires. Remarkable Biographical Parallels
Page 124
Page 125
Page 126
Page 127
Page 128
Page 129
Page 130
Page 131
Page 132
Page 133
Page 134
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Page 136
Page 137
Page 138
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Page 140
Page 141
Page 142
Page 143

2. Charlemagne's Empire and the Byzantine Empire. The 330-year Rigid Shift. Comparison of the 4-6th cc. A.D. and the 7-9th cc. A.D.
Page 144
Page 145
Page 146
Page 147
Page 148

3. Chronological "Cut" in the Traditional Version of Ancient History
Page 149
Page 150
Page 151

4. The 1,053-year Second Basic Chronological Shift in European History

4.1. The general structure of the 1,053-year second chronological shift and the 1,800-year third chronological shift
Page 152
Page 153

4.2. The formula of the shift X+ 300. Parallels between the First Roman Empire (Regal Rome), the Third Roman Empire and the Bible. The first 250 years of Roman history
Page 154
Page 155
Page 156
Page 157
Page 158
Page 159
Page 160
Page 161
Page 162

4.3. War against the Tarquins and the Gothic war. The 1,053-year chronological shift and the formula X+ 300. Comparison of the historical events of the 6th c. B.C. and the 6th c. A.D.
Page 163

1. War prehistory
Page 164
Page 165

2. Start of the GTR-war
Page166
Page 167

3. War with Rome
Page 168
Page 169
Page 170

4. Stream of parallel events
Page 171
Page 172
Page 173
Page 174
Page 175

5. End of the GTR-war
Page 176

4.4. The Second Roman Empire and the Holy Roman Empire in the 10-13th cc. A.D. The 1,053-year chronological shift and the formula X+ 300

1. Ancient Rome and medieval Rome in 555-850 A.D.
Page 177

2. John the Baptist and John Crescentius {lOth c. A.D.)
Page 178
Page 179
Page 180
Page 181
Page 182

3. Jesus Christ and Gregory VII Hildebrand {11th c. A.D.)
Page 183
Page 184
Page 185
Page 186
Page 187
Page 188

4. Star flares in the Second Roman Empire and the Holy Roman Empire. The "evangelical star" in 1 A.D. and star flare in 1054 A.D.
Page 189

5. Eclipse that occured during the Crucifixion
Page 190
Page 191
Page 192
Page 193

4.5. The Third Roman Empire and the Holy Roman Empire. The 720-year chronological shift as the difference between the first and second basic chronological shifts. The Trojan war, Gothic war and Italian war in the 13th c.A.D.
age 194
Page 195
Page 196

5. The Parallel between the Western Third Roman Empire and the Biblical Kings of Israel. Enquete-Codes of the Historical Periods of the 9-5th cc. B.C. and the 3rd-6th cc. A.D.

5.1. The complete table of both streams
Page 197
Page 198
Page 199

5.2. The remarkable biographical parallel
Page 200
Page 201
Page 202
Page 203
Page 204
Page 205
Page 206
Page 207
Page 208
Page 209
Page 210
Page 211
Page 212
Page 213

6. The Parallel between the Eastern Third Roman Empire and the Biblical Kingdom of Judah

6.1. The complete table of both streams
Page 214

6.2. A remarkable biographical parallel
Page 215
Page 216
Page 217
Page 218
Page 219
Page 220
Page 221
Page 222
Page 223
Page 224
Page 225

7. The Medieval Song of Roland and the Biblical Book of Joshua

7 .1. History of the poem "Song of Roland"
Page 226
Page 227

7 .2. The parallel between the medieval poem and the ancient chronicle. Table of the isomorphisms
Page 228
Page 229
Page 230
Page 231
Page 232

8. The 1,800-year Third Basic Rigid Shift in Ancient Chronology. The Gothic =Trojan= Tarquins' War(= GTR war) and Its Chronological Duplicates in the Different Epochs of Traditional History

8.1. The Trojan war and the Gothic and Tarquinian wars

1. The medieval Trojan cycle. Homer, Dares and Dictys
Page 233
Page 234

2. A rough comparison
Page 235
Page 236
Page 237
Page 238
Page 239
Page 240
Page 241
Page 242

3. The "legend of a woman" and the start of war
Page 243
Page 244
Page 245

4. The fall of Naples and Troy
Page 246

5. The Greeks' Trojan horse and the Latins' aqueduct of Naples
Page 247
Page 248
Page 249

6. Achilles and Patroclus = Valerius and Brutus
Page 250
Page 251

7. Achilles and Hector = Belisarius and Vitiges
Page 252
Page 253

8. Achilles' "betrayal" and Belisarius' "betrayal"
Page 254
Page 255

9. Troilus = Totila; Paris = Porsena
Page 256
Page 257
Page 258

10. The other Trojan legends
Page 259
Page 260
Page 261

11. Medieval anachronism in the ancient Trojan cycle
Page 262
Page 263

12. The Christian dating of the Trojan war
Page 264
Page 265

8.2. The Reflection of the Trojan war and the GTR-war in the 1st c. (Sulla, Pompey and Julius Caesar) B.C.

1. New parallels in Roman history (the "great Triumvirate": Sulla, Pompey, Julius Caesar and the GTR-war in the 6th c. A.D.)
Page 266

2. Four statistical duplicates: the Gothic war in 6th c. A.D. = the Roman war (Julius Caesar) in 1st c. B.C. = the Trojan war in the 13th c. B.C. and = the Tarquinan war in the 6th c. B.C.
Page 267
Page 268

3. The "principal king": Justinian= Pompey= Agamemnon= Tarquinius the Proud
Page 269

4. The "legend of a woman"
Page 270
Page 271
Page 272
Page 273

5. Marcius Junius Brutus and Patroclus
Page 274
Page 275
Page 276

6. Vercingetorix and Hector
Page 277
Page 278
Page 279
Page 280

7. Julius Caesar and Achilles
Page 281
Page 282
Page 283
Page 284

8. Anthony and Antonina
Page 285
Page 286
Page 287

8.3. The GTR-war of the 6th c. A.D. and the Nika riot of the 6th c. A.D.
Page 288
Page 289

Page 290

9. Egyptian Chronology

9.1. Difficulties in creating Egyptian chronology
Page 291
Page 292

9.2. Astronomical dating of the zodiacs in the temple in Dandarach

1. The "round zodiac" and its horoscope. History of the problem
Page 293

The next fragments of the texts are replaced by the fragments from the book: Anatoly T.Fomenko, Tatiana N.Fomenko, Gleb V.Nosovskiy. "History: Fiction or Science?". Chronology 3. Part 2. - DelamerePublishing, Paris, London, New York, 2007. Part 2 THE DATING OF THE EGYPTIAN ZODIACS. A. T. Fomenko, T. N. Fomenko, G. V. Nosovskiy
(T. N. Fomenko is a Doctor of Physics and Mathematics and the author of several books and scientific articles on algebraic topology and geometry as well as algorithm theory, and also a Professor from the Department of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Moscow State University.) Part 2 THE DATINGOF THE EGYPTIAN ZODIACS.A. T. Fomenko, T. N. Fomenko, G. V. Nosovskiy

10. Some Strange Features of Ptolemy's Almagest. Preliminary Remarks

10.1. Latin and Greek editions
Page 303
Page 304
Page 305

10.2. Durer's astrographic charts in the first editions of the Almagest
Page 306
Page 307

11. Duplicates in Greek Chronology. The 1 ,800-year Chronological Shift

11.1. The Epoch of the Crusades in 1099-1230 A.D. and the Epoch of the Great Greek Colonization in the 8-6th cc. B.C.
Page 308
Page 309
Page 310

11.2. Charles of Anjou and Cyrus
Page 311
Page 312

11.3. Matilda and Miltiades
Page 313
Page 314

11.4. The Greco-Persian war and the battle of 300 Spartans with Xerxes' armies at Thermopylae
Page 315

11.5. The war in medieval Greece and the Peloponnesian war in ancient Greece
Page 316
Page 317
Page 318

11.6. The medieval Mahometans and the ancient Macedonians. Mahomet II and Philip II
Page 319
Page 320
Page 321
Page 322

Appendix 1. Volmne Graphs for the "Biographies" ofthe Holy Roman Emperors ofthe 10-13th cc. A.D. Additional Chronological and Statistical Data of Ancient History
Page 323
Page 324
Page 325
Page 326
Page 327
Page 328
Page 329
Page 330
Page 331
Page 332
Page 333
Page 334
Page 335
Page 336
Page 337
Page 338
Page 339
Page 340
Page 341
Page 342
Page 343
Page 344
Page 345

Appendix 2. When Was Ptolemy's Star Catalogue Really Compiled? Variable Configurations of the Stars and the Astronomical Dating of the Almagest Star Catalogue 346

1. History of the Problem and Subject of the Work
Page 346

2. Some Notions from Astronomy
Page 347
Page 348

3. Some Characteristics of the Ancient Star Catalogues
Page 349

4. Errors in the Coordinates in Ancient Catalogues
Page 350

5. Preliminary Analysis of the Almagest
Page 351
Page 352
Page 353

6. General Description of the Method of Dating

6.1. Types of errors occurring in the catalogues

6.2. Systematic errors
Page 354
Page 355

6.3. Random errors and spikes
Page 356

7. Statistical Analysis of the Almagest Star Catalogue

7.1. Preliminary remarks 357

7.2. Classification of latitude errors
Page 357
Page 358

7.3. Analysis of errors. Seven homogeneous regions in the Almagest star atlas
Page 359
Page 360
Page 361
Page 362

7.4. Error values in the Almagest star catalogue
Page 363
Page 364
Page 365

8. The Dating of the Almagest Star Catalogue

8.1. Statistical dating procedure

8.2. Geometrical dating procedure
Page 366
Page 367

9. Stability of the Method
Page 368

10. Dating of Other Catalogues

10.1. Tycho Brahe's catalogue
Page 369
Page 370
Page 371
Page 372

10.2. Hevelius' catalogue
Page 373

10.3. Ulugbeck's catalogue
Page 374

10.4. Al-sufi's catalogue
Page 375

Appendix 3. Dating of the Almagest Based on the Occultation of the Stars by Planets and Lunar Eclipses 376

1. Introduction
Page 376

2. Dating of the Occultation of the Stars by Planets
Page 377
Page 378
Page 379
Page 380
Page 381

3. Dating of the Lunar Eclipses
Page 382
Page 383
Page 384
Page 385
Page 386

4. The Chronology of the Almagest
Page 387
Page 388
Page 389

Appendix 4. The Dating of the First Oecumenical Council of Nicaea and the Beginning of the Christian Era 390

1. A date for the Council of Nicaea from the Easter Book

1.1. The accepted point of view

Page 390
Page 391
Page 392

1.2. A date from the Easter determination rule. A computer experiment
Page 393

1.3. A date from Easter full moons
Page 394

1.4. A date from the "Damaskine palm"
Page 395

1.5. An explicit date of Matthew Vlastar

1.6. Comparison of the dates
Page 396

1.7. The "first and second" Oecumenical Council. Canonization of the Easter Book
Page 397

1.8. The Gregorian calendar reform
Page 398
Page 399

1.9. Where the date for the Council of Nicaea came from
Page 400

1.10. The main conclusions

2. The Birth of Christ and the 1 A.D.

2.1. History of the problem
Page 401

2.2. The "First Easter conditions"
Page 402

2.3. A date for the first Easter from the complete set of the first Easter conditions
Page 403

2.4. Dates for the First Easter from the reduced set of the First Easter conditions

2.5. On the lifetime of Dionysius Exiguus
Page 404
Page 405

3. On modern tradition

3 .1. The extremity of modern dating ("the more ancient the better")
Page 406
Page 407

3.2. Matthew Vlastar's equinoxes and modern chronological tradition
Page 408
Page 409
Page 410
Page 411

Appendix 5. The Well-known Babylonian Captivity and the Well-known Avignon Exile of Papacy
Page 412
Page 413
Page 414
Page 415
Page 416
Page 417
Page 418
Page 419

Bibliography
Page 421
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Subject Index
Page 437
Page 438
Page 439
Page 440

Index of Names
Page 441
Page 442
Page 443
Page 444
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Page 447
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